The Renaissance fervor was not to be extinguished, however, as its ideals migrated northward to France, then to the Low Countries and Germany, and finally to England and Scandinavia by the close of the 16th century. Most common people of the time were unaffected by these innovations and did not view their age as distinctive.
Producers of its main aesthetic streams, such as authors, artists, and their patrons, willfully rejected the culture of the preceding era the Middle Ages and set out to create a new one.
Sensing only a limited attraction to the courtly motifs of the medieval secular literary tradition and disillusioned by the elaborate argumentation of Scholasticism, the sophisticated urban ruling classes searched for a new culture that would enable them to cope with the quandaries of human existence and empower them to deal with and even manipulate other people. Perfectly suited for this aim was the literature of ancient Rome, with its strongly political and ethical outlook and the prominence it placed upon oratorical and rhetorical training.
To gain a deeper understanding of Latin literature, the urban elites were quickly drawn to the Greek literature that Roman authors frequently cited and presupposed of their readers as background knowledge. While formally beginning in the 15th century, the social origins of the Italian Renaissance can be traced back to the economic, social, and political developments in Italian society during the 12th through 14th centuries.
The 12th and 13th centuries comprised an age of expansion and prosperity directed by the capitalistic noble classes, or grandi, who often resided in the cities and invested in business but whose cultural traditions were military and feudal, giving preference to the chivalric and courtly literature of France.
This changed in the late 13th century when the nonnoble classes, led by rich businessmen, seized control of many town governments and drove the grandi from power. However the 14th century experienced a series of disasters that, paradoxically, modified the structural foundations of Italian society so as to promote the flourishing of artistic and literary endeavors.
While these events prevented the founding of new fortunes, they left the wealth of established rich families largely intact, creating a new social condition. Since the relatively high degree of social mobility that kept business enterprise open to new talent and preoccupied with acquiring new wealth had evaporated, the dominant business class was converted from a group of self-made men to a group of men who had inherited their wealth and who had been raised in luxury that they intended to preserve but they could largely take for granted.
Rich businessmen, who retained their active participation in politics to defend their material interests from radical movements spawned by working-class agitation, now devoted an equal amount of time to public affairs, especially the patronage of art and literature.
This view of history was spearheaded largely by Petrarch — , who proceeded to synthesize it with his new anthropology, or doctrine of humanity, that humans were rational and sentient beings, intrinsically good by nature, with the power to think and choose for themselves.
However, in the late 13th and early 14th centuries before the rise of Renaissance humanism, a number of masterpieces in the vernacular catalyzed the transition of Italy from a cultural backwater to the leader of European culture. Petrarch became the second great figure of Italian vernacular literature through poems capturing the attention of both refined courtly society and the common people.
The master of the Italian sonnet, Petrarch is best remembered for his highly personal and subjective love poetry, most notably the Canzoniere, a collection of sonnets addressed to his unrequited love, Laura. His work was heightened by motifs reflecting everyday life, including satire against corrupt clergymen, amusing treatment of human idiosyncrasies, and tales of marital infidelity. Unfortunately the trend toward classical humanism in the first half of the 15th century temporarily stifled the germination of the vernacular tradition, which deterrence was removed by the major revival of the vernacular in the second half of that century.
Lorenzo was a lyric poet of great ability who set the stylistic parameters for both secular and religious poetry in the vernacular. The Florentine Petrarchan tradition experienced great development under the Venetian cleric Pietro Bembo, a leader in the movement attempting to restore the purity of the Latin language embodied in Cicero, when he embraced its highly refined sentiment and technical mastery of intricate verse forms for his Italian poetry.
Popular literature of a less aristocratic flavor often applied French chivalric and courtly themes to Italian characters. Recasting the French heroic knight into the Italian Orlando, Italian courtiers such as Luigi Pulci —84 adapted this material for consciously humorous verse. Medieval French chivalric themes were discussed more seriously in the poem Orlando innamorato Orlando in Love by Matteo Boiardo —94 , a noble at the refined court of the dukes of Ferrara who invented a new style integrating humanistic classical topics with medieval chivalric interests.
Although The Prince is notorious for its advocacy of political self-seeking through deceitful tactics, Machiavelli regarded a balanced republican government, typified by Rome, as the best and most durable form of government and trusted the public spirit and wisdom of the common citizens more than that of princes and aristocrats. In the artistic sphere, Giotto di Bondone — took the first steps toward the Renaissance, completely forsaking the flat and nonrepresentational appearance of the prevailing Byzantine art in favor of the illusion of three-dimensional form on the twodimensional painted surface.
Reformists like Luther succeeded to challenge the Catholics and split the church into two. This marked the beginning of new religions Bishop, Baroque was term borrowed from the Portuguese word barocco used to illustrate sculpture, music and architecture during the renaissance era. This was the favorite piece of art during the renaissance. That is simply because the arts during that time created reality and revealed passion on the face of the arts.
The painters used baroque sculptures to bring out their concept of religion. This piece of art had a great significance to religion because the church used the arts in decorations to show the glory of heaven. The renaissance era will remain a remarkable time in the European calendar and the entire world Butler, It was characterized with the weakening influence of the Catholic Church and development of humanism — the faith that the ancient Greeks and Romans had an ethical insight well-matched with and useful for Christianity, and these processes deeply altered moral values of a lot of people shifting focus of their world outlook from the next world toward this one.
She got brilliant education due to efforts of her mother who was a highly-educated woman, played the harp, collected canvases of famous painters, and had personal library. Isabella was taught Latin and Greek, classic literature and history, she played lute very well and was brilliant in vocal.
Besides, Isabella studied geographic maps and astrology with special vigour. Contemporaries described her as the eloquent, highly intelligent, widely-read, energetic, and witty woman playing cards and chess with great passion.
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- • The Renaissance was a rebirth that took place throughout Europe, it was started in Italy because of three advantages: thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and the .
The Italian Renaissance was one of the most colorful, vital, and exciting times in history. Renaissance eventually comes from the French word "Renaistre," meaning "to be born again." The Renaissance was a revival or a rebirth of cultural awareness and learning among art, law, language, literature, philosophy, science, and mathematics.
The Renaissance applies to Italian art and architecture of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Renaissance is a French word-meaning rebirth. The Renaissance was the revival or cultural awareness among art, law, language, literature, philosophy, science /5(5). The most brilliant example of Italian prose in the High Renaissance (the early 16th century) is the work of Niccolò Machiavelli (–) on politics and history. His two principal books, The Prince and Discourses on the First Ten Books on Titus Livius, drew heavily on the author’s firsthand experience as a leading Florentine diplomat and civil .
The Italian Renaissance Essay Words | 4 Pages The Italian Renaissance Throughout history many art movements have emerged that artists and styles are classified under. Women of the Italian Renaissance Essay Sample. This essay deals with some of the different ways in which women have been represented in Italian Renaissance. It attempts to place these images of women within the cultural context of the artist who painted them and of the patrons who commissioned them.