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❶There is no single agreed upon definition of racial profiling.

Racial Profiling

Essay title: Racial Profiling Term Paper
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According to Coates , those in support of the racial profiling state that it is very crucial since the frequency of the crimes associated with the profiles shows that they are prevalent in the particular community. However, some ethics and moral theorists do not agree to this as this is a violation of personal beliefs and practices which are different for every individual according to relativism.

According to Drakulich , absolutism states that the there are supposed to be basic ethical procedures for everyone, but the law enforcers should do their job with understanding and fairness. Utilitarian view postulates that the benefits of an action are justified according to how much the work improves social welfare which to some extent means that racial profiling is justified. Profiling mexican american identity: The American Behavioral Scientist, 47 7 , Black and mainstream press's framing of racial profiling: Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 86 1 , Critical racial and ethnic studies-profiling and reparations.

But is it racial profiling? Contemporary Sociology, 38 1 , Racial profiling as a public policy question: Efficiency, equity, and ambiguity. The American Economic Review, 95 2 , Texas Law Review, 82 3 , Analysis of racial profiling as policy analysis. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 21 2 , A contextual study of racial profiling: Assessing the theoretical rationale for the study of racial profiling at the local level. Racial profiling, fairness, and effectiveness of policing.

The American Economic Review, 92 5 , Race, ethnicity, and law enforcement profiling: Implications for public policy. Public Administration Review, 62 6 , Racial profiling and representative bureaucracy. Public Administration Review, 68 4 , Risse and zeckhauser on racial profiling: Utilitas, 22 2 , Prejudice in police profiling: Assessing an overlooked aspect in prior research. Essay on Racial Profiling.

Boston College Type of paper: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. An article on "Racial profiling and background injustice" explored the idea as to whether background injustice compounded the injustices of profiling an individual based on his or her race.

This suggests it would be suitable for my proposed article, which details the ethical and practical concerns of 'revolving door' politics in the U.

The journal is especially interested in profiling topics of current interest, and because of increased scrutiny about…… [Read More]. Racism Obama and Racism Throughout history, several factors have always helped decide who was entitled to even run for the esteemed office of the President of the United States of America. Military service, a prominent Governorship, family connections, the number of slaves owned and of course having a boat load of money clearly helped. Of course, this list offered no guarantees of making the short list.

The nations' power brokers made sure that this post only became available to an elite club. That club had very strict entry criteria and one thing was certain, having a skin color other than white was more than likely not going to ever look good on one's resume.

Secret rules of potential presidential club membership were in place for over two hundred years and the majority of the world considered that race was one particular requirement that was never going to be…… [Read More]. Washington D C Race in Community. Despite the racial diversity and richness of culture, the Washington, D. The media are filled with news reports and editorials concerning the discrimination against African-Americans.

In particular at issue are numerous accounts of racial profiling by law enforcement. Moreover, in recent years there has been much media discussion concerning discrimination against minorities among home-finance companies. And even Mayor Williams's office has been forced to deal with racial slurs from his…… [Read More]. Specifically it will answer the question: Do government policy and regulation help or hurt in the racial, ethnic, religious, gender, and sexual orientation area?

These members of society could be called "vulnerable populations," and all are quite affected by society and governmental policies. These populations are "different" from the general population, and so, their needs, their reactions, and their experiences are often different, too.

Governmental policy initially was meant "for the people and by the people," but today's governmental policies often ignore segments of the population, or make it harder for them to synthesize into the general population, both in society, and in the criminal justice system as it exits in America today.

Governmental policy has long been scrutinized, criticized, and manipulated as to where it stands on issues regarding the vulnerable populations. Sometimes, governmental policy shifts, as it has somewhat regarding gays and lesbians…… [Read More]. Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism Counterterrorism. Legislation such as many elements of the U. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.

Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA? The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of FISA was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups.

The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U. African-American Politics Just like other constant processes accompanying change, global politics has been in a constant changing state since times immemorial.

Not only that, politics that we observe worldwide based on different rules and regulations as well as outlining distinct policies unique to every age, Stone Age, Middle Age as well as Modern Age is highly rich in history. On the same account African-American politics has also witnessed various changes. African-American politics, however, is largely based on issues pertaining to the racial differences and color prejudices that the blacks in America have had to face since for good.

This mercurial political sphere while undergoing change gives birth to various phenomenon and activities. The recent one being the issue related to the Racial Privacy Initiative. Cultural Diversity as an African-American. Literature classes focus mainly on the works of dead white guys, and science talks about the accomplishments of dead white guys.

While there are token mentions of the works of other races, they are not given equal representation. Furthermore, many of the classics chosen contain antiquated attitudes about race. However, I am against censorship. Stories do not lose their value because of discriminatory depictions of African-Americans; instead they capture a portion of the relationship between the races at that time.

For example, Harper Lee is honest about race discrimination in To Kill a Mockingbird, but the racist language she uses captures a feeling and goes to the heart of the book. I would just like to see some more books from the point-of-view of those in the minority.

Finally, some schools offer specialized courses or specialized months. An African-American literature course or women's history month, while well-intentioned, do not really…… [Read More]. Racism in the Arizona Community Do Members. Racism in the Arizona Community Do members of the community look like you? In what ways do they look the same or different? I remember once sitting in a Chris Rock open mike when he cracked a joke about how he viewed the U.

To be the rich relative in his family who financed your education after assaulting you for years. Even though I couldn't stop laughing at that; in hindsight however, living in Arizona for over 20 years and in light of the new immigration law I cannot help but agree with that completely.

Even though I have gotten the best out of the best and yet I have been slapped down all my life too. I grew up in the pre-civil rights movements when my neighbourhood was the home of jazz and blue centres and breakthrough entrepreneurs who paved the way to better lifestyles making in-roads for the…… [Read More].

Some pin their hopes on rescue. A few find inner strength the never new they had. The band of friends, family, enemies and strangers must work together against the cruel weather and harsh terrain. Intense howl of the mysterious creatures stalking the jungle fill them all with fear Lost web site http: People seem more and more fragmented and fractured, with families spread across countries, continents and even the globe struggling to remain connected through the only means possible, the electronic super highway, cell phones with no long distance charges, cheap airline tickets and a few other more costly means.

Challenges faced by these people and the families they comprise seem to be more…… [Read More]. Latino Immigrant Issues in Los Angeles. Finally, in , the last Mexican-American holdouts in Chavez Ravine were forcibly removed from their homes by police, and the bulldozers were brought in to clear all remaining buildings, according to the PBS report. Inequality in Los Angeles, essayist Camille Zubrinsky Charles writes that immigrant status "significantly impacts the likelihood of homeownership" Charles, , p.

In fact slightly more than half of…… [Read More]. Governmental Crime and Corruption. Corruption Within the Criminal Justice System Although the American system of criminal justice and jurisprudence is widely regarded as a model for democratic nations across the globe to emulate, with its guarantee of due process and protection from illegal search and seizure standing as pillars of liberty, glaring defects still exist which warrant further improvement.

From the disturbing trend of disproportionate arrest and sentencing among minorities, to the inability of courts to adequately enforce prohibitions levied against sexual predators, America's criminal justice system is imperfect at best, and inherently broken at worst. Widely publicized court cases such as the recent trial of George Zimmerman, a Florida vigilante charged with, and late acquitted of, murdering a young African-American man named Trayvon Martin, only serve to expose the fundamental flaws which are still far too prevalent within corrupt law enforcement agencies, an aging and outmoded judiciary, legions of overburdened prosecutors and defense…… [Read More].

Asian and Latino Gangs and. Gang activity would then threaten the family and friends of gang members due to association and not any true guilt in any criminal activity. Along with the potential threats to innocent community members, gang activity deteriorates the condition of the communal space as well. Graffiti is very often evident as border markers and property rights within the gang hierarchy; yet "graffiti is offensive to the community" HACER Along with destroying the aesthetics of the community, such actions cause losses to local businesses in property damages and lost business due the overwhelming fear created by such replications of the images of gang violence.

All in all, the self-proclaimed protectors of Latino-American communities, are they ones who threaten them most. Having to deal with such violence has also pushed law enforcement to heightened and sometimes controversial measures in their attempt to stop gang violence. Law enforcement has been utilized in such…… [Read More]. Black White and Jewish by Rebecca Walker. The book does on to describe, with great poignancy, the author's perceived difficulty of living with a dual, often uncomfortable identity of whiteness and blackness, of Jewishness and 'gentileness.

Race and Employment The United States is supposed to be based on the principle that all men are created equal. Men have fought and died in order to defend this idea, but even more than two hundred years after the founding of this nation, there is still a great disparage between the positions of men in this country based upon the differences in their skin color.

In the television program The Wire, a large group of black men and women find themselves in the position where they have to commit crimes and other unlawful actions in order to support themselves and their families. In their low income areas, often the only way in which to earn the money to hopefully get their siblings and their children out of these poor communities is to sell drugs or their bodies to other low-income people in similar dire circumstances. According to authors Philip…… [Read More].

Individual is a year-old African-American male. Although this individual is from a middle class background and was raised in a suburban area that included a majority white population, his story reveals the ways public policy can be discriminatorily applied. This individual is defined as at risk based on several factors including race, class, and gender. His race puts the individual at a systematic disadvantage vis-a-vis his white neighbors because of several factors.

One is that law enforcement officials in his and surrounding communities are more likely to stop and interrogate him versus his white peers.

As second issue is that the individual was treated differently from his white counterparts in school. A third is that his parents had experienced discrimination and their experiences have had an influence on the individual's worldview and his belief in the possibility for change. Drug Policy American Drug Policy: Marijuana Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so.

The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp marijuana famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive.

Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…… [Read More].

Multicultural Issues in Policing for. It became apparent that we have a serious problem in this country and that this problem could undermine attempts to build bridges between different cultural groups. It became an issue at the forefront of law enforcement management.

The Roots of Racial Profiling Police officers used to be trained to view people of different cultural background as potential suspects for deportation. It went so far that in taxi drivers in California were ordered to report any suspected illegal aliens to the police McDonald, Orders such as these led to the definition that being "American" meant having the same skin color and speaking English as a primary language.

The civil rights movement empowered immigrants to voice their opinions based on their racial differences McDonald, In police departments reversed its position and officially announced that they would no longer cooperate with the INS with the removal of the legal…… [Read More]. Criminal Justice Gaetz, S. Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization.

This journal article reports the researcher's survey findings regarding the prevalence of victimization among street youths compared to domiciled youths. Gaetz defines the street youth operatively as "people up to the age of 24 who are 'absolutely periodically, or temporarily without shelter, as well as those who are at substantial risk of being in the street in the immediate future" Survey findings show that just as expected, victimization mostly occur among the street than domiciled youth.

Moreover, street youth reporting of criminal victimization is not common among both males and females. African-American Perception of Police the. Racial prejudice, which frequently leads to unfair acts do not just imprison the race receiving the prejudice. As Chisholm notes at the start of this section, racial prejudice imprisons all Americans. The following three synopsis reflect a sampling of information from literature that will be reviewed in the proposed study.

Blessed Unrest Info Blessed Unrest. Criminal profiling, generally, as practiced by police, is the reliance on a group of characteristics they believe to be associated with crime. Examples of racial profiling are the use of race to determine which drivers to stop for minor traffic violations commonly referred to as "driving while black or brown" , or the use of race to determine which pedestrians to search for illegal contraband ACLU, , online.

Circuit Court of Appeals decision, the Court ruled that, ". In most circumstances, law enforcement officials cannot rely on ethic appearance as a factor for deciding whether to stop someone suspected of a crime," and went on…… [Read More].

Criminal Justice System Essay. This essay discusses how the criminal justice system is an important part of the government, allowing for the prosecution, imprisonment, and rehabilitation of criminals. Apart from the court system and police, the criminal justice system has other components like criminal justice agencies that provide additional information for researchers to form studies and articles to help improve the criminal justice system as a whole.

This Criminal Justice Essay will help students looking to understand what the system is and what components make up the system. By exploring the core of the criminal justice system, one can understand law and how the government carries out enforcement of the law within the country.

An indepth analysis of Racism in America Where do we'stand. Where do we stand? From the time of the New World's discovery in the year , racism has remained at the forefront of U. Even in the present day, it is reported that in America, one Black man dies from police confrontations every 28 hours.

A majority of these incidents even fail to show up in local newspapers and news channels. It is only occasionally that these unfortunate victims garner the state media's attention and even rarer for such incidents to show up on national-level media. Over half a century following the famous "I have a dream" speech by Martin Luther King and many years following Barrack Obama's historic victory in the Presidential elections to become the nation's first ever African-American President, growing cases of racial violence prove the persistent sensitivity of this social issue.

Mass racial aggression, dubbed the nation's "worst nightmare," persists Lester,…… [Read More]. Racism in a Multicultural Society United States is called a melting pot because of the influx of immigrants from diverse backgrounds who have all somehow adapted well to the life in the U.

We are talking about the U. In multicultural context because no other country can claim to have a society so diverse as America. But with multiculturalism come few serious problems too including racism.

Racism had been a pervasive issue in the United States for a very long time and just when we think it has been effectively dead, some incident occurs to remind us that it is still very much a part of this society. African-Americans still suffer from racism in variety of ways. Race and Sentencing Guidelines Race has been a consideration in sentencing guidelines for quite some time. Many individuals believe that those who are not Caucasian receive sentences that are harsher and punishment that is stricter than others Because of this, there is concern that perhaps the sentencing guidelines and the entire criminal justice system is racially biased.

This is evidenced not only by individuals of other races who feel that they have been treated unfairly but by statistics which indicate the number of non-Caucasian individuals on death row and within the prison system in general. The purpose of this paper will be to show that there is disparity between the sentencing guidelines that are given to Caucasians and to non-Caucasians and to look at the extent race plays a part in the prosecution for different crimes.

Public Opinion of Police Departments. But, many citizens respond more favorably to "civilian-style uniforms" and in line with that, Bailey asserts that civilian attitudes towards police ATP are the "most positive" when in the presence of "non-authoritarian police officers" Whether a police chief in a medium size city could undertake a transformation from a military-style police uniform -- the style used almost universally in the U.

And elsewhere -- to a more civilian-formatted uniform is problematic, but the idea is worth pursuing. Authors Hahn and Jeffries explain -- through the research they accumulated -- that most people tend to "…shun or avoid individual contact with police officers" Hahn, et al.

Why do people shy away from on-duty police officers? Hahn asserts that the hesitancy may be the result of "a general perception of police officers as agents of social control," which of course, in a way, is exactly the task of…… [Read More]. Discretionary Situations for a Police Chief Discretion.

Focus for this study is on law enforcement administrators, especially police chiefs, on their responses to their officers' discretion to criminal arrests. The argument put forth is that police discretion is limited by managerial and information technology monitoring methods, which direct police officers to adhere to set up procedures Chan, ; Rowe, Given that police officers usually have the opportunity to make a decision on whether to apply laws.

This concept paper finds that there is a close relationship between management decisions and use of discretion. It is on this basis the research will focus on the police chief's management decisions and the use of discretion in two major scenarios. A police department…… [Read More]. Stop and Frisk as it Relates to Race and Social Class Despite living in the Land of the Free, some Americans on the public streets are still being singled out by law enforcement authorities for questioning and searches based on race and social class.

In what is termed a "stop and frisk," police have detained and searched ordinary citizens for no other crime than being a minority or poor. In mid, the two Supreme Court cases, Terry v. Ohio and Sibron v. New York, approved the constitutionality of police stop and frisk practices under the Fourth Amendment.

Since that time, there is a growing body of evidence that indicates that police have used disproportionately applied this authority to minority members and poor people, in some cases to improve their image with their fellow officers.

This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning these two cases,…… [Read More]. Social Psychology Bringing it All Together. Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the lateth Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second World War, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups.

Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus Feenstra Chapter 1.

Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group Feenstra Chapter 2.

Social psychologists have…… [Read More]. History From to the Present Day. To focus the research, select six subtopics specific events or developments related to the topic, separated in time ; three from before and three from after.

Immigrants There are more than 50 million immigrants legal and illegal and their U. As of the last decade, most immigrants come from the following countries: Roughly half of Mexican and Central American and one-third of South American immigrants are here illegally.

The Center for Immigration Studies Right Side news finds that immigration has dramatically increased the population of low-income individuals in the United States, although many immigrants, the longer they live in the country, make significant progress. However, immigrants…… [Read More]. Cheikh Anta Diop, Julius K. Nyerere, and Dubois Similar to the West, Africa proves to be a homeland of writers.

Owing to the numerous literatures associated with the Africans, one can confirm that writing was part of the Africans, which is apparent in the dates of different literary works. As part of history, they wrote to preserve and educate the coming generations on what happened then. This was not only through writing, but also through other literary works such as poems, music, and other forms of art. Most of the African writers wrote out of experience, and the urge to let something known.

In contrast to the modern way of African writing, which utilizes creativity as the main tool when writing; these legends utilized observation, evaluation, and experiences from others as a main contributor to their literary works.

The subjects, which majored in their writings varied according to the…… [Read More]. Law Enforcement Ethics Stigmas and.

Police officers need to understand that there exists a balance between security and the individual's freedom Banks, Officers are also susceptible to corruption, and therefore need to understand that the causes of corruption are often identified and combated through an understanding of and respect for the justice system that is currently in place.

Police officers also need to be trained properly, with a foundation in the same concepts and ideas that most Americans hold dear- that all people are created equal and deserve the right to fair and honest treatment. Only through proper training where officers can learn to see "others" as the same as them, and where these "others" become human and relatable, can a culturally sensitive and effective law enforcement body be created.

Crisis in Law Enforcement 2nd Ed. Criminal Justice…… [Read More]. Relationships of Police with Minority Groups. Countrywide statistics for the year , presented by Gallup, suggest that under half the Hispanic population in America and not even thirty-five percent of the African-American population believes they will be treated justly by policepersons Smoot, In this paper, the link between minorities and policepersons with regard to racial politics and race will be delved into.

Minority communities, for instance, largely find they are unable to avail themselves of services they have a right to enjoy,…… [Read More]. Arizona Immigration Law Is One. The hypothesis that certain black persons viewed racism as an all round phenomenon that occurs in many forms was tested.

Other black persons viewed and experienced racism in many other different ways. This suggested that the act of racism is more in the mind of the specific victim than the actual fact in the objective reality.

This highlighted out the fact that if white individuals were in the same environment with blacks, then the feeling of discrimination would be randomly experienced by the black persons. This and the fact that most of the reported racist cases are usually ambiguous highlights the fact that the opponents of the illegal immigration law of Arizona might be blinded by the fear in their minds that the actual reality on the ground which of course prompted the state to adopt the controversial piece of legislation.

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Racial profiling is a contentious issue in US law enforcement policy. The practice of using race as a part of a profile when attempting .

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- A large problem in America My research paper/project is on racial profiling. i chose this topic because it is a huge problem in todays society. Anywhere you go there is always going to be racial profiling.

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Shawnta Prather CJE Research Paper October1, Racial Profiling and the Effects it has on Blacks in the Criminal Justice System. Some people wonder what is racial profiling. Racial profiling deals with miss- education, slavery, and incarceration. Since the beginning of slavery African. Racial Profiling Term Paper Words | 7 Pages. Racial profiling is a popular method used by law officers in order to hypothetically enhance crime prevention by targeting minorities, because they are more likely to commit a crime.

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Against Racial Profiling and/or other forms of profiling in dealing with security and immigration issues. Group Members: Shay, Bryce, Brandon, Ariana Opening Argument Main Argument: Racial profiling is defined as the discriminatory practice by law enforcement officials of targeting individuals for suspicion of crime based on the . This sample Racial Profiling Research Paper features: + words (26 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 21 sources.