Such a species is called polytypic species. When the component populations of a polytypic species ar. An evident unit of life in nature is the individual organism. Linguistically as well as biologically, the root of the word 'organism' is organisation: Each kind of living organism possesses a certain degree of organisation which enables them to perform different life activities.
In fact, close examination of the any aspect of the living world reveals that everyth. Biological motives originate from our biological make up. Biological motives can arise due to: There are three theories th. The origin of modern statistics can be traced back into the 17th century, in which it derived from two sources.
The first of these related to political science and developed as a quantitative description of the various aspects of the affairs of a government or state hence the term statistics. This subject also becomes known as political arithmetic.
Taxes and insurance caused people to become. Genetics is a relatively new field of biology and most associate this science with Johann Gregor Mendel , who was the first person to formulate any laws about how characteristics are passed from one generation to the next.
This kind of study is often called Mendelian genetics. His work was not generally accepted until , when three men working independently rediscovered some of the. Gregor Mendel's work actually was far ahead of his times and the scientific world at that time was not in a position to appreciate the fundamental nature of his contribution.
In fact it is not an exaggeration to say the science of genetics got a firm foundation from his work. It was Mendel who thought of a physical basis for inheritance. It was he again, who proposed that inheritance of characters. Gregor Mendel, while enunciating, his law of independent assortment, ascertained that two or more elements, that constitute a hybrid, undergoes independent segregation without being influenced by the other.
Mendel's principles of independent assortment apply not only to genes but to chromosomes as well, so that paternal and maternal chromosomes are segregated to separate gametes during meiosis. The story of Gregor Mendel's life history and work is a curious mixture of luck and misfortune. Mendel was lucky because the experimental organism and the characters he chose to enunciate the laws of inheritance were admirably suited than any other organism; the misfortune is, the scientific world just ignored his epoch making discoveries.
One of the marvels of nature is the creation of tiny yet potent biological compartments called cells. There is virtually no living being in the biological world saves for Viruses which is not cellular. Either one, two or many millions of cells go to make the body of the living beings. A cell may be defined as the 'structural and functional unit of a living being.
It is the minimal biological unit. The cytoplasm in the cells of most of the plants and animals is traversed by a network of anastomosing fibrillar structures called endoplasmic reticulum ER. Originally known as ergastoplasm, the current name ER was given by Porter and Kaallman The ER is connected to the outer nuclear membrane with the ER space opening into the perinuclear space between two membranes.
The ER is known t. The term mutation was first coined by Hugo devries in the early to designate sudden and drastic changes that occurred in plants. Devries conducting breeding experiments on the plant Oenothera lamarckiana Of the family Onagraceae commonly called the Evening primrose.
He noticed that some of the progeny possessed characters which were not to be found in either of the parental types. The scientific committee at large and biologists in general have been thinking for a very long time as to how to introduce some sense into genetic engineering research. While it may not be prudent to indulge in genetic engineering for problems which can be solved otherwise it is equally true that genetic engineering cannot be totally given up as it indeed has the potential of solving some of th.
A molecular model for DNA structure first proposed by J. C Crick has been universally accepted. They were awarded Nobel Prize for their discovery. The work of Crick and Watson has been supported by X-ray diffraction picture obtained by Wilkins and his associates.
You need to mark down the information you find which contributes to your topic. You need to write only that which contributes. Otherwise you will become bogged down with useless statistics that only cloud your topic.
So what steps can you take or what measures can be employed to ensure you take proper notes? Color code your notes using different highlighters. Color code them based on essential ideas, supporting evidence, etc… this will help you to wade through details and larger points. If you find a page from a book or a single article that is too valuable, with far too much information to write down on a single note card, photocopy that page. Highlighters are important here because you can then highlight information on the photocopy that you want to remember when it comes time to write the research paper.
Each time you take a note down, write down the necessary bibliographical information. Make sure to note the page numbers you used too.
Initially they were being used for industrial fermentation and waste water treatment. As today industry is linked to biotechnology, several new industrial applications have been found for a variety of microbes. It is sometimes also studied as microbial biotechnology and is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses or plant and animal cells to create useful products or services.
Areas of industrial microbiology include quality assurance for the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. This branch of microbiology deals with the scientific study of pathogenic microbes, the diseases they cause, their mode of survival in environment and their hosts including life-cycle ; their diagnosis, prevention and treatment.
In fact, as early as Varo and Columella in the first century BC had postulated that the diseases were caused by invisible beings animalia minuta. Von Plenciz had put forth the idea that each disease was caused by a separate agent. This branch deals with microbes having an impact on agriculture and food chains. Both, the harmful microbes causing plant diseases as well as useful microbes e. Certain raminants also carry a mixture of complex bacteria that enable the animal to extract sufficient nutrient from a diet of grasses.
Future research in microbial ecology will help to determine in preserving a balance in mirobial communities that favour agriculture. This branch includes the study of composition and physiology of microbial communities of the environment. It also deals with the activities of microbial entities, their interactions among themselves and with maroorganisms. Adhesion, biofilm formation, global element cycles, biogeochemical processes and microbial life in extremes of environment or unexplored environs all fall in its preview.
As the microorganisms are ubiquitous present almost everywhere food and milk are no exceptions. Hence the microbes are studied from the viewpoint that they e. And thus how they can cause spoilage, prevent spoilage through fermentation or can be the cause of human illness, all comes under the realm of this branch of microbiology.
It is a thrust area of microbiology these days, as more and more food items are being packaged including milk and its products for later use. Bio-engineering, including recombinant genetic technology of the 21 st century is the science upon which all biotechnological applications are based. It combines disciplines like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, food sciences, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, microbiology, cell biology and all are interrelated to electronics, information technology and robotics.
The current science of bacteriology includes the study of both domains of prokaryotic cells the Bacteria, and Eucarya. It is the study of viruses, complexes of nucleic acids and proteins that have the capacity for replication in animal, plant or bacterial cells. To replicate, the viruses use their genomes DNA or RNA or of the host cells and cause changes in cells, particularly its antigenicity and may cause several diseases in plants and animals is all covered under this branch.
This branch deals with the biota that inhabits the soil and the processes they mediate. As the soil is a complex environment, colonized by an immense variety of microorganisms, the soil microbiology focuses on soil viruses, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and protozoa, but traditionally it has also included investigations of soil animals such as nematodes, mites and other arthropods. Modem soil microbiology represents an integration of microbiology with the concepts of soil science, chemistry and ecology to understand the functions of microorganism in the soil environment.
This branch deals with the study of microbial flora of various types of sewage. The sewage may, depending upon source, can contain harmless E. This branch studies their qualitative as well as quantitative details and ways to combat them following various treatment processes. It deals with the study of various fungi. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms and around species are shown to be pathogenic for man. It studies their morphology, taxonomy, biosystematics, distribution, propagation, and several mycotic diseases they cause including hypersensitivity, mycotoxicoses, mycetismus and other infections and their remedies.
Earlier much in use, this branch is the study of protozoa motile and heterotrophic protists. Protozoa-despite their small size and unicellularness offer complex and unique biological features.
They also serve as experimental models in a variety of cellular, molecular, biochemical and ecological researches. One of the applied sub-branches of this old branch is medical protozoology covering protozoa infecting humans. It covers life-cycles, morphological features, host-parasite interactions, geographical distributions, reservoir hosts, method of transmission and control, pathology, immunological aspects, diagnosis and remedies are all included in it.
It covers the study of microorganisms and their activities in natural water. As the natural waters include lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, estuaries and oceans, it initially started covering all of them. But due to the growth of the subject several other branches have also been recognized and are as follows: The aquatic microbiology deals with the variability of aquatic habitat and rapid changes in characteristics and associated microbial component. The microbial activity and biomass measurement studies are performed to follow microbial functions in water ecosystems.
Also the balance between N, P, O and H is studied in lakes, eutrophic systems, and streams etc. The oceanic explorations like Challenger expedition and Galathea expedition were among the initial efforts to critically explore microbial aspects of the deep seas and the nature of psychrophilic bacteria.
Barotolerant bacteria are among the unique fauna of deep oceans. As the most of the earlier work on seas and oceans remains confined to the near-shore and estuarine marine environments, the interest is growing in the off-shore and pelagic ocean microbiology.
It deals with the rapid variations in the physicochemical properties in estuaries leading to the establishment of unique microbial communities. This branch also undertakes the study of epiphytic microbial communities of estuarine plants, its biomass, temperature, salinity etc. And as great fluctuations are observed in estuarine environments, so are the varieties of microbial groups including sulphur bacteria, iron bacteria and heterotrophs etc.
Earlier the groundwater was assumed to be sterile, as very early studies indicated a decrease in microbes with increasing depths. But the microbiology of groundwater has become an important branch due to increased pressure on groundwater, ever increasing contamination and presence of microbes in deep waters. This is a recent branch of microbiology and addresses deep aquifers hundreds of meters below surface.
It attempts to study the role of microorganisms in influencing the petroleum, sulphur and other drilling companies and vice-versa. It is the study of those invisible microorganisms less than 1 mm in size which are present in air. It also covers monitoring, distribution and diversity of airborne microorganisms in indoor and outdoor environments and especially the ones causing breathing trouble and diseases.
It covers the role of a variety of microbes in hydrocarbon processing in formation of coal, gases and minerals. It also tells us to employ microbes for recovery of minerals from low grade ores. The microbial degradation of chemicals in the environment is an important route for removal of these compounds.
It deals with the microbes in the outer space or the extraterrestrial space but all these microbes were originated on earth. In other words, the space microbiology is called exomicrobiology.
Jun 11, · 20 Topics For Essay On Microbiology. April 14, by admin Essay Topics. Facebook 0 Twitter 0 Google+ 0 Viber WhatsApp. Medical Microbiology/clinical biology. The study of microbes in human diseases is known as medical microbiology or clinical microbiology. The branch includes the study of pathogens. The study also .
Microbiology Essay Topics List Microorganisms are everywhere, almost every natural surface is colonized by microbes, from the body to ocean. Most microorganisms are harmless to human; you swallow millions of microbes every day with no ill effect.
Paper Topics for Microbiology: Bacteria and Viruses. You may want to start your paper by choosing a specific bacterium, Archean, or virus and subsequently focus to something you find particularly interesting about that organism. May 02, · Biology is an interesting topic because you are going to a remote area to explore Mother Nature’s gift to the community be experiencing remote natural wonders. In this way, research practice becomes productive if you have successfully found the solution of your investigative research process.
A common way of how to write a biology essay body is by using at least three paragraphs. The biology essay tips need to be relevant to the research question being discussed. The points should also give assertion to the reader. May 18, · Microbiology is the study of microbes that are practically invisible to the human eye. Although microbes are usually associated with causing and aiding disease, they are essential organisms in the ecological world.