The common criticisms of social welfare, while sometimes valid, cannot be considered justifications for completely abolishing any government aid for people pushed into desperate situations by circumstances out of their control. First of all, we will look at the criticisms of the concept of welfare throughout U. Diehard proponents of the free market believe that any intervention on the part of the government will alter the most efficient growth of business.
For example, assuming an industry or business fails, the subsequently unemployed workers will provide a labor resource for the competing industry or business that will inevitably fill the gap left in the market. If these unemployed workers receive social welfare, it is believed that this will slow down the growth of the market and the flow of competition.
Many of those with faith in the American Dream believe that social welfare mars its purity. If people can receive benefits and services without working, the value of work will decrease and a culture of laziness will ensue. People will use loopholes and make excuses to receive social welfare and avoid working. Tax dollars will then be diverted from serving the public good to sustaining the livelihood of freeloaders.
The less conceptual criticisms of social welfare--although they tend to be easily hedged under the two previously described categories—focus on the inefficiency of welfare states and governmental programs and their spending. Inefficient spending may often increase dependency of citizens on the government, instead of guiding them towards independence and productivity Jones, When governments reach deficit spending and need to cut programs, social welfare will often receive the brunt of these cuts, leading to disaster for those already in a situation with few options.
However, there is a great difference between creating a welfare state and providing a safety net. For example, concerning the situation proposed earlier of an industry or business collapsing, it must be acknowledged that the transition between jobs, especially lower level manufacturing or labor jobs, is not a smooth one for the worker, particularly if he or she needs to pay child care.
Even if one believes social welfare affects the motivation of workers to achieve the American Dream in a negative way, there still must be a point where social welfare is considered necessary to achieve equal opportunity for children. There needs to be a social safety net for children in large single parent families with low income. With a pragmatic perspective of these circumstances, it can easily be seen how tax dollars spent on social welfare for children can save tax dollars in the futures.
Homelessness, injury, and crime are greater and more damaging social expenditures than social welfare. From this perspective, social welfare is not strictly an issue of conservative versus liberal government spending, but more a concern of how to prevent social ailments that may harm economic productivity Frank, From the conservative side, social welfare and foodstamps is a necessary evil for extreme circumstances, but the more far left attitude towards social welfare, one where the state and market operate hand in hand, as opposed to being as estranged as possible, is not necessarily as catastrophic as might be expected by Americans.
This is how welfare began as a federal government responsibility. Roosevelt and the members of Congress who wrote the welfare provisions into the Social Security Act thought that the need for federal aid to dependent children and poor old people would gradually go away as employment improved and those over 65 began to collect Social Security pensions.
But many Americans, such as farm laborers and domestic servants, were never included in the Social Security old-age retirement program. Also, since , increasing divorce and father desertion rates have dramatically multiplied the number of poor single mothers with dependent children. Since the Great Depression, the national welfare system expanded both in coverage and federal regulations.
From its inception, the system drew critics. Some complained that the system did not do enough to get people to work. Others simply believed the federal government should not administer a welfare system.
As the system grew, so did criticism of it, especially in the s and '90s. In , candidate Bill Clinton, a Democrat, ran for president promising to "end welfare as we know it. By , the number had grown to nearly 7 million. From a national fiscal point-of-view, after the Clinton's Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity reconciliation Act gave welfare control back to the states, there was a 60 per cent overall drop in welfare recipients, but critics point out that much of this was part of a reclassification from welfare to workfare during an unusually strong economic time the late s DeParle, Scholars point out that the perceptions of welfare also contribute to the cycle of underfunding.
In America, one Political Science professor noted, "while Americans with the most exaggerated misunderstandings of the racial composition of the poor are the most likely to oppose welfare," which, in turn, perpetuates racial stereotypes and could increase Americans'…… [Read More]. Illegal Aliens on the Healthcare. It was good news. But it was bad news to healthcare providers in areas with large populations of alien immigrants.
The benefits did not link up with the funding employers or the government to pay for the benefits. It did not offer enough incentives for the choice of a healthy lifestyle or the available health care services. It needed to simplify administrative procedures. It relied too much on government regulation and too little from public sector's initiative. And it provided few incentives to study the effectiveness of its procedures and outcomes.
These comprised the bad news. New Mexico Business Journal: Recession and African-Americans in the. Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat. The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U. Mayors during…… [Read More]. How Canada Responded to the Financial Crisis. Comparative Politics Canada, like any other nation suffered terribly from the effects of the global financial crisis.
The economic impacts from Global Financial Crisis were resolved through Canada's political and provincial administration structures.
The Great Recession further intensified such trends towards elements of the precarious unemployment across Canadian provinces such as British Columbia mostly with certain population groups. This paper intends to illustrate how the global fiscal crisis has affected provincial economies in Canada.
Global Financial Crisis Impact on Provincial economies The goal was to establish suitable forms of welfare states that mediated on the effects of forces of the global market forces through the determination of levels of state intervention within the provincial economic marketplaces.
The liberal welfare regime in Canada as compared to the conservative one in Germany and social democratic from Scandinavian countries focused less on welfare provision and citizen security. This translated into…… [Read More]. Special Immigrant Juveniles in the.
According to Prchal, "As the nineteenth century became the twentieth, the United States experienced an unprecedented surge in immigration.
These enormous numbers of newcomers to the country concerned those who were already here, particularly most native-born Americans; however, the ethnic composition of these new arrivals was the source of even greater concern for many: The descendants of the earlier immigrant groups often perceived the Italians, Slavs, Jews, and others entering the country as belonging to races that…… [Read More].
Child Support Programs and Their Contribution in. Child Support Programs and their contribution in making United States a welfare state The current essay is aimed at exploring the legislations and policies related to child support and welfare and how it helped United States to be a welfare state.
The author has analyzed the child support programs and whether these programs have been helpful for the parents of children.
The author has also discussed the problems related to these support programs as well as their benefits. Welfare and Child Support Receipt In , there were 6. America's slave population was 33, in the 17th century, nearly three million in the 18th century. It later rose up to six million in mid of 18th century. During this journey towards passage to the New World period more than a million died.
The English colonialism is considered responsible for the promotion of the Atlantic trade and slave plantation system. The profits of slavery were mainly to serve the English economy. England's sole economic position helped the establishment of these colonies. The capitalist transformation of agriculture assisted in…… [Read More]. Smoking Cessation Studies of six diverse communities in Chicago, poor women under welfare reform and Medicaid recipients as well as a focus group of seniors concerning smoking cessation showed that 1 populations do vary in their smoking behavior and ability to stop smoking and 2 programs must be developed to target specific demographics.
Although prior studies showed that poorer individuals have worse health, comparatively less research has been conducted specifically on a subgroup of this population -- single mothers receiving welfare. The researchers thus compared the health of single mothers from Michigan who were impacted by welfare reform with a nationally representative sample of women.
Results indicated that current smoking rates were higher and smoking cessation…… [Read More]. Homelessness in the United States has been a growing social concern.
It has also become clear that measures to deal with the problem have not been significantly effective. Specifically vulnerable to this problem are women, often the sole care takers of young children. The problem then imprints itself not only on the unemployed, but also upon those who depend upon these individuals for their livelihood. Homelessness then becomes a vicious cycle, inherited by children from parents.
Because women are in a particularly difficult position when homeless, they should be the recipients of efforts focused specifically upon their needs.
Employability for example is hampered by elements such as young children, lack of day care and lack of job skills Zastrow Only by addressing such issues with the aim to prevent homelessness, can the issue be addressed with a greater degree of success than has so far been the case. Domestic Violence Is a Problem. At the same time that movement activists were pushing for the enactment of new legal measures, they were also working to develop a grass-roots community-based approach to providing direct services to victims of domestic violence.
In , the first domestic violence shelter in the United States was opened in an apartment in St. Paul, Minnesota, staffed entirely by volunteers. Today more than 2, shelters and crisis centers dot the North American landscape. Some are funded through private donations and staffed by volunteers but most are sustained by a combination of public and private monies and are run by a mix of professional and nonprofessional, paid and unpaid staffs.
Thus we see that contemporary efforts to address domestic violence are characterized by a pattern of service provision and problem definition that from the outset has involved a reliance on state and community measures.
The dual focus on the development of both…… [Read More]. Losing Ground Consequentialism in Charles. In fact, over two million more families lived below the poverty line at the time of Murray's research than they had a decade before he published -- and this estimate may have even been conservative Murray , pp. Regardless of the intentions behind American social policy and the welfare reform JFK called for that Murray alludes to in the chapter's opening, it is obvious that all such policies are failing and evening worsening the situation.
American Social Policy , Charles Murray argues quite compellingly from a consequentialist perspective that social policy in this country is in massive need of reform. In the chapter dealing with the American family, as in much of the rest of his book, Murray basically implies if not outright states that racism and sexism have become institutionalized and monetized, and that this trend has been increasing in recent decades despite efforts to…… [Read More]. This paper will examine variations in gender inequality based on educational levels and, subsequently, approximately on socioeconomic status in case of the following three countries: America, Indonesia and the Netherlands, which are characterized by highly disparate female employment, societal welfare and family policies and circumstance.
For every country, female hourly pay rates and employment rates for distinct educational levels are compared, besides work hours and employment rates for males with the same educational level. It is broadly hypothesized female employment increases with higher educational qualification; increased employment of qualified females results in improved gender equality in terms of pay, housework and job Evertsson, England and Reci. How is employment anticipated to differ with educational level among females?
The conflicting factors of income and opportunity cost have been put forward by economic theory. Better educated females can earn more. Therefore, for such women, opportunity costs linked to unemployment i. The purpose of this work is to discover the answer to this question as well as research the plight of single mothers in America today and explain the major economic and social problems that are faced by single mothers.
Further this work will discuss the assistance available today that would have improved Parker's life in the decade of the seventies. According to Parker, there is shame in being poor and poverty is to be viewed with anger and not pity. Poverty is "dirt," "being tired" states Parker who uses much small definition that poignantly catch the reader's attention.
Parker reveals to the reader the vicious cycle of poverty. The facts concerning poverty are not the kind that are encouraging or inspiring and quite unfortunately the cycle…… [Read More]. Child Support Distribution Act of H. The need for better enforcement of child support laws were evident in a recent survey that showed that fewer than one-fifth of inner-city children born to single teenage mothers receive child support from their fathers. In fact, half of these children never see their fathers at all.
Many fathers are unable to provide support because they are unemployed and do not have any marketable skills. As a result, a great majority of these teen mothers depend on welfare to support their children Moore. Child Abuse and Neglect in. But the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment.
In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur. ANALYSIS The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children.
If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…… [Read More]. Violence Against Children The structure of violence as related to children directly correlates to their perceived socio-demographic risk. Several factors directly relate to the likelihood that a child will be subjected to violence at some point during their lives.
Social, economic, demographic and physical factors all have a dramatic impact a child's development, either positive or negative and these factors also influence whether or not a child is more or less likely to be subjected to violence. Children living in high risk environments typically serviced by human service agencies, including poverty stricken areas and foster care living arrangements, are among the children that are at increased risk for violence and abuse.
Children subjected to violence are much more likely to subsequently exhibit violent behavior later in life as well. Health care providers, educators, foster parents, families and community members all have an impact on a child's development.
It is the…… [Read More]. Presidents the Top Five Great. The Presidency of George Walker Bush, present, has been marked primarily by his war on terrorism, however, he has proposed to make welfare more focused on the well-being of children and strengthen support of families, provide Affordable Health Care for Low-Income Families and Individuals, and has asked Congress to aid him in achieving significant immigration reform that includes matching a willing worker with a willing employer, protecting workers from abuse, and protecting the rights of legal immigrants while not unfairly rewarding those who came here unlawfully or hope to do so.
Works Cited Dallek, Robert. Hail to the Chief: The Making and Unmaking of American Presidents. Presidential rhetoric, charisma, and greatness. Accessed June 17, Poverty and Educational Attainment This. As demonstrated in the work of McLanahan and Garfinkel most parents at the time their children are born express a desire to raise their children together however, this many times does not happen.
The church and community stand in a unique position to empower and enable these parents to do just this through provision of support in the way of resources and assisting the supervision of these children while parents work to move themselves and their children out of the poverty bracket and into a position that brightens the potential outcomes for their children and themselves.
It is not the suggestion of this writer that members of the community and church should necessarily dig into…… [Read More]. Teen Abortion Abortion among teenage girls has been an issue of much debate for many years. Many people believe that all abortions should be illegal while others believe that there are circumstances that warrant the right to choose. Teens At the forefront of this issue is an organization called Planned Parenthood, which provides teenage girls with abortions.
There are many reasons why teenagers choose to have abortions rather than carrying their children to term. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the factors that influence a teenager's decision to have an abortion. These factors include; economics, Planned Parenthood Programs and parental consent laws. Research Questions Do certain economic factors affect abortions in teenage pregnancies? Do Planned Parenthood programs reduce the amount of abortions? Partnership Oz 'Managing Out' Public.
OZChild's Board of Directors is actively involved in support of the organization through stewardship of a network of professional contacts as potential donors, and in liaison with the Australian Government in support of the agency's mission and programs. Operations expenses are of course included in the OZChild Strategic Plan designed toward sustainable growth and maintenance of the agency's position within the national and international social services community as a leader in service provision and policy advocacy.
One could effectively argue that where Ife's Australian Government and its utilitarian reductions left off, the growth sector of NPO social services, and especially social work advanced its role in management of a critical national public sector formerly dictated by traditional constraints of the social welfare state.
If the overall aim is to interpret the outcomes to the transformation of public administration by way of the "managing out" phenomenon, then OZChild and other agencies…… [Read More]. London Housing The research was undertaken to study the link between inequality and depravity, poverty and crime in the housing structures of London. The study found that there is wide spread economic disparity in London.
- Welfare Reform - Welfare Recipients MUST take Personal Responsibility Public Welfare is an important support system of the United States government. Welfare has its benefits, but the system has pitfalls.
Has Welfare Reform Benefited the Poor?. In August , President Bill Clinton changed the way the American poor would support themselves financially. President Clinton signed into legislation a new reform that would replace the then current, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), with the /5(20).
Federal Welfare Reform: A Critical Perspective Abstract: This project will examine “welfare reform,” which was signified by the signing of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (PRWOA) in Gendering the Welfare State Essay. Gendering the Welfare State The impetus for the creation of welfare in the United States was children. Children are viewed as a social good— the good students (or the troubled youth) of tomorrow or the devoted worker (or the unemployed worker) of the future.
Welfare Reform. divorced, deserted, and minority mothers and their children. Few private and government retirement pensions existed in the United States before the Great Depression. The prevailing view was that individuals should save for their old age or be supported by their children/5(1). - Welfare Reform - Welfare Recipients MUST take Personal Responsibility Public Welfare is an important support system of the United States government. Welfare has its .